You should be able to tell participants what will happen to the research results. When will the results likely be published? Where can they get a copy of the published results? Are they told what part of the project they were in? You can add that they are not identified in any report or publication. For example: the results are presented at conferences and are written in journals. The results are usually presented in the form of groups of people. If individual data is provided, the data will be completely anonymous without identifying those involved. If data is to be archived and transmitted, participants must, as far as possible, give explicit consent. In some cases, it may not be appropriate to archive the data. The informed consent form explains the search procedures and informs the participant of their rights during the study. Informed consent should address the following issues: explain why the potential participant was contacted. Participants under the age of 18 generally require the consent of parents or guardians and, as a result, information sheets and consent forms are sent to them.
However, it may be helpful to create a participant information sheet and consent form for children who use age-appropriate language. Since animals are an important part of the natural world and some research cannot be conducted with humans, animals are also involved in psychological research (Figure 3.3). Most psychological research on animals is now conducted with rats, mice and birds, and the use of other animals in research is decreasing (Thomas-Blackman, 1992). As with ethical choices involving human participants, a number of fundamental principles have been developed to help researchers make informed decisions about this research; a summary is presented below. A consent form must not exceed an A4 page. It must be formatted on head paper with the university`s coat of arms (or equivalent for other institutions) and clearly indicate the title of the study. When presented in an abstract way, the ideas that under the basis of a research hypothesis are called conceptual variables. Conceptual variables are abstract ideas that form the basis of research hypotheses. Sometimes the conceptual variables are quite simple — for example, age, gender or weight.
In other cases, conceptual variables represent more complex ideas such as fear, cognitive development, learning, self-esteem or sexism.